Annual report pursuant to section 13 and 15(d)

2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

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2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2012
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

2.      SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

The following comprises the Company’s significant accounting policies:

 

Basis of presentation

 

The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of ADMA Biologics, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries.  All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

The Company considers all highly-liquid instruments purchased with a maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.

 

Inventories

 

Plasma inventories (both plasma intended for resale and plasma intended for internal use in our research and development activities) are carried at the lower of cost or market value determined on the first-in, first-out method.    Once the research and development plasma is processed to a finished good for ongoing trials it is then expensed to research and development.  Inventory at December 31, 2012 and 2011 consists of raw materials.  Inventory also includes plasma collected at the Company’s FDA licensed plasma collection center.  Approximately 9,000 liters of plasma inventory was sold in 2011, and the Company recorded a loss of $1,934,630.  The total amount of inventory sold at book value was $2,439,487 and the Company received $504,857 in proceeds from the sales.

 

Revenue recognition

 

Revenue from the sale of human plasma collected at the Company’s FDA licensed plasma collection center and plasma-derived medicinal products is recognized at the time of transfer of title and risk of loss to the customer, which usually occurs at the time of shipment.  Revenue is recognized at the time of delivery if the Company retains the risk of loss during shipment.  The Company’s revenues are substantially attributed to one customer.

 

This plasma inventory sold in 2011 was sold on a non-recurring basis and had not been collected at our plasma collection facility, but had been purchased from third parties to conduct research and development for a different product.  The Company abandoned the research program and sold the inventory to generate additional funds for operations.  Therefore, the sale was not recorded as revenue with related cost of sales, but was instead recorded as a loss on sale of inventory.

 

Research and development costs

 

The Company expenses all research and development costs as incurred including plasma and equipment for which there is no alternative future use.  Such expenses include licensing fees and costs associated with planning and conducting clinical trials.

 

Use of estimates

 

The preparation of financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period.  Actual results could differ from those estimates.  Significant estimates include valuation of inventory, assumptions used in the fair value of stock-based compensation, and the allowance for the valuation of future tax benefits.

  

Concentration of credit risk

 

Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist of cash and cash equivalents.

 

Property and equipment

 

Fixed assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation.  Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the asset’s estimated useful life, which is five to ten years.  Leasehold improvements are amortized over the lesser of the lease term or their estimated useful lives.

 

Income taxes

 

From June 24, 2004 to July 16, 2007, the Company elected to be taxed as an S corporation for both Federal and state income tax reporting purposes.  Accordingly, the taxable income or loss related to that period was includable in the personal income tax returns of the stockholders.

 

Effective July 16, 2007, the Company was merged into a C corporation and adopted guidance issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, “Accounting for Income Taxes” which requires that the Company recognize deferred tax liabilities and assets for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns.  Under this method, deferred tax liabilities and assets are determined on the basis of the difference between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their respective financial reporting amounts (“temporary differences”) at enacted tax rates in effect for the years in which the temporary differences are expected to reverse.  The Company records a valuation allowance on its deferred income tax assets if it is more likely than not that these deferred income tax assets will not be realized.

 

The Company has no unrecognized tax benefits at December 31, 2012 and 2011.  The Company’s U.S. Federal and state income tax returns prior to fiscal year 2009 are closed and management continually evaluates expiring statutes of limitations, audits, proposed settlements, changes in tax law and new authoritative rulings.

 

The Company will recognize interest and penalties associated with tax matters as income tax expense.

 

Earnings (Loss) Per Share

 

Net loss per share is determined in accordance with the two-class method.  This method is used for computing basic net loss per share when companies have issued securities other than common stock that contractually entitle the holder to participate in dividends and earnings of the Company.  Under the two-class method, net loss is allocated between common shares and other participating securities based on their participation rights in both distributed and undistributed earnings.  The Company’s Series A convertible preferred stock are participating securities, since the stockholders are entitled to share in dividends declared by the board of directors with the common stock based on their equivalent common shares.

 

Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss applicable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period.  Because the holders of the Series A convertible Preferred Stock are not contractually required to share in the Company’s losses in applying the two-class method to compute basic net loss per common share, no allocation to preferred stock was made for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011.

 

Diluted net loss per share is calculated by dividing net loss applicable to common stockholders as adjusted for the effect of dilutive securities, if any, by the weighted average number of common stock and dilutive common stock outstanding during the period.  Potential common shares include the shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options and a warrant (using the treasury stock method) and the conversion of the shares of Series A convertible preferred stock (using the more dilutive of the (a) as converted method or (b) the two –class method).  Potential common shares in the diluted net loss per share computation are excluded to the extent that they would be anti-dilutive.  No potentially dilutive securities are included in the computation of any diluted per share amounts as the Company reported a net loss for all periods presented.  Potentially dilutive securities that would be issued upon conversion of convertible notes, conversion of Series A convertible preferred stock, and the exercise of outstanding warrants and stock options were 0.7 million at December 31, 2012 and 1.7 million at December 31, 2011.

 

 Stock-based compensation

 

The Company follows recognized accounting guidance which requires all stock-based payments, including grants of stock options, to be recognized in the Statement of Operations as compensation expense, based on their fair  values on the grant date.  The estimated fair value of options granted under the Company’s 2007 Employee Stock Option Plan (the “Plan”) are recognized as compensation expense over the option-vesting period.

 

During the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, the Company recorded stock-based compensation expense to employees and a consultant of $626,787 and $22,947, respectively.  There were 506,559 and 0 options granted to employees and members of the Board of Directors for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively.

 

The fair value of employee options granted was determined on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes model.  The Black-Scholes option valuation model was developed for use in estimating the fair value of publicly traded options, which have no vesting restrictions and are fully transferable.  In addition, option valuation models require the input of highly subjective assumptions including the expected stock price volatility.  The Company’s employee stock options have characteristics significantly different from those of traded options, and changes in the subjective input assumptions can materially affect the fair value estimate.  Because there is no public market for the Company’s stock and very little historical experience with the Company’s stock options, a small similar publicly traded company was used for comparison and expectations as to assumptions required for fair value computation using the Black-Scholes methodology.  Guidance for stock-based compensation requires forfeitures to be estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates.  The Company currently estimates there will be no forfeitures of options.

 

The Company records compensation expense associated with stock options and other forms of equity compensation using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model and the following assumptions:

 

    Year Ended December 31,
    2012
Risk-free interest rate   0.97-1.62%
Expected volatility   82-85%
Expected term of options in years   6.25
Expected dividend yield   0.0%

 

Fair value of financial instruments

 

The carrying amounts of certain of the Company’s financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable, and notes payable are shown at cost which approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.  The carrying value of the long-term note payable approximates its fair value as of December 31, 2012, due to the timing of its closing which occurred on December 21, 2012.